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Page Downloaded July Particle Beam Techniques Most currently available smartcard processors have feature sizes of 0. These can be reverse-engineered and observed with the manual and optical techniques described in the previous nagravision smart card. For future card generations with more metal layers and features below the wavelength of visible light, more expensive tools additionally might have to be used. A focused ion beam FIB workstation consists of a vacuum chamber nagravision smart card a particle gun, comparable to a scanning electron microscope SEM. By increasing the beam current, chip material can be removed with the same resolution at a rate of around 0.


Better etch rates can be achieved by injecting a gas like iodine via a needle that is brought to within a few hundred micrometers from the beam target. Gas molecules settle down on the chip surface and react with removed material to form a volatile compound that can be pumped away and is not re-deposited. Using this gas-assisted etch technique, holes that are up to 12 times deeper than wide can be created at arbitrary angles to get access to deep metal layers without damaging nearby structures. By injecting a platinum-based organo-metallic gas that is broken down on the chip surface by the nagravision smart card beam, platinum can be deposited to establish new contacts.

With other gas chemistries, even insulators can be deposited to establish surface contacts to deep metal without contacting any covering layers. Using laser interferometer stages, a FIB operator can navigate blindly on a chip surface with 0. Chips can also be polished from the back side down to a thickness of just a few tens of micrometers. Using laser interferometer navigation or infrared laser imaging, it is then possible to locate individual transistors and contact them through the silicon substrate by FIB editing a suitable hole.

This rear-access technique has probably not yet been used by pirates so far, but the technique is about to become much more commonly available and therefore has to be taken into account by designers of new security chips. FIBs are used by attackers today primarily to simplify manual probing of deep metal and polysilicon lines. A hole is drilled to the signal line of interest, filled with platinum to bring the signal to the surface, where a several micrometer large probing pad or cross is created to nagravision smart card easy access Fig. Processing time can be rented from numerous companies all over the world for a few hundred dollars per hour. Another useful particle beam tool are electron beam testers EBT [14]. These are SEMs with a voltage-contrast function.

Typical acceleration voltages and beam currents for the primary electrons are 2.

The number and energy of secondary electrons are an indication of the local electric field on the chip nagravision smart card and signal lines can be observed with sub micrometer resolution. The signal generated during e-beam testing is essentially the low-pass filtered product of the beam current multiplied with a function of the signal voltage, plus noise.


EBTs can measure waveforms with a bandwidth of several gigahertz, but only with periodic signals where stroboscopic techniques and periodic averaging can be used. If we use real-time voltage contrast mode, where the beam is continuously directed nagravision smart card a single spot and the blurred and noisy stream of secondary electrons is recorded, then the signal bandwidth is limited to a few megahertz [14]. While such a bandwidth might just be sufficient for observing a single signal line in a 3.

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nagravision smart card EBTs are very convenient attack tools if the clock frequency of the observed processor can be reduced below nagravision smart card to allow real-time recording of all bus lines or if the processor can be forced to generate periodic signals by continuously repeating the same transaction during the measurement. Nagra 3 Non Invasive Attacks A processor is essentially a set of a few hundred flip flops registers, latches, and SRAM cells that define its current state, plus combinatorial logic that calculates from the current state the next state during every clock cycle.

Quick Details. Place of Origin: Guangdong, China Mainland. Packaging Details nagravision smart card per box, pcs per carton ,or according to the customers' needs Port Shenzhen Lead Time : Shipped in 7 days after payment. MOQ pcs 7. Certification ISO 8.

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Without a change, the supply current remains extremely small. Power supply current is also needed to charge or discharge nagravision smart card load capacitances when an output changes. A normal flip flop consists of two inverters and two transmission gates 8 transistors. SRAM cells use only two inverters and two transistors to ground one of the outputs during a write operation. This saves some space but causes a significant short-circuit during every change of a bit. There are numerous other effects. During careful security reviews of processor designs it is often nagravision smart card to perform detailed analog simulations and tests and it is not sufficient to just study a digital abstraction. Smartcard processors are particularly vulnerable to non-invasive attacks, because the attacker has full control over the power and clock supply lines.NAGRAVISION TO PROVIDE CONDITIONAL ACCESS AND SMART CARD SOLUTIONS TO PT BROADBAND MULTIMEDIA "KABELVISION".

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